The approach outlined in the letter below is the forebear to Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM, also known as Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, MCDA) and Conjoint Analysis.
Benjamin Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the USA, wrote the letter – also available as a YouTube animation – in 1772 to his English acquaintance Joseph Priestley offering him advice on how to make important decisions.
Franklin’s approach, which he called “moral or prudential algebra”, is in essence the forebear of MCDM / MCDA and Conjoint Analysis, both of which were invented in the 20th Century, as implemented by 1000minds, for example.
Sept. 19, 1772
In the affair of so much importance to you, wherein you ask my advice, I cannot, for want of sufficient premises, advise you what to determine, but if you please I will tell you how.
When those difficult cases occur, they are difficult, chiefly because while we have them under consideration, all the reasons pro and con are not present to the mind at the same time; but sometimes one set present themselves, and at other times another, the first being out of sight. Hence the various purposes or inclinations alternatively prevail, and the uncertainty that perplexes us.
To get over this, my way is to divide half a sheet of paper by a line into two columns; writing over the one Pro, and over the other Con. Then, during three or four days consideration, I put down under the different heads short hints of the different motives, that at different times occur to me, for or against the measure.
When I have thus got them all together in one view, I endeavor to estimate their respective weights; and where I find two, one on each side, that seem equal, I strike them both out. If I find a reason pro equal to two reasons con, I strike out the three. If I judge some two reasons con, equal to some three reasons pro, I strike out the five; and thus proceeding I find at length where the balance lies; and if, after a day or two of further consideration, nothing new that is of importance occurs on either side, I come to a determination accordingly.
And, though the weight of reasons cannot be taken with the precision of algebraic quantities, yet, when each is thus considered, separately and comparatively, and the whole lies before me, I think I can judge better, and am less liable to make a rash step; and in fact I have found great advantage from this kind of equation, in what may be called moral or prudential algebra.
Wishing sincerely that you may determine for the best, I am ever, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,
This and other letters are available from: The Writings of Benjamin Franklin: London, 1757-1775